This work has been co-funded by the Belgian Development Cooperation (through framework agreement with the Royal Museum for Central Africa) and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA - Vienna, project "Development of a Web Based Multi Entry Key for Fruit Infesting Tephritidae", contract n. 16859).

We are grateful to the JEMU (Joint Experimental Molecular Unit) for continuous support.

We are grateful to Alain Reygel (RMCA - Tervuren), Georg Goergen (International Institute of Tropical Agriulture - Cotonou) and Antoine Franck (CIRAD Pôle de Protection des Plantes - La Réunion) for their valuable contribution to the image dataset.